Tuesday, 3 October 2017

properties for textile fiber

Chemical composition of some common fibers

Type of fiber Cellulose Lignin Pentosan Ash
Seed flax 43-47 21-23 24-26 5
Kenaf (Bast) 44-57 15-19 22-23 2-5
Jute (Bast) 45-63 21-26 18-21 0.5-2
Hemp 57-77 9-13 14-17 0.8
Ramie 87-91 - 5-8 -
Kenaf (Core) 37-49 15-21 18-24 0.8
Jute (Core) 41-48 21-24 18-22 -
Abaca 56-63 7-9 15-17 1-3
Sisal 43-62 7-9 21-24 0.6-1
Cotton 85-96 0.7-1.6 1-3 0.8-2

Diameter of Natural and Meltblown Fibers

Material Diameter Mean Value (microns) Coeff Variation(%)
Spider silk 3.57 14.8
B. mori Silk 12.90 24.8
Merino Wool 25.50 25.6
Polyester 13.30 2.4
Nylon 6 Filament 16.20 3.1
Kevlar 29 13.80 6.1

Effects of Acids on Common Fibers - Comparison

Fiber Effects of Acids
Acrylic Resistant to most acids
Modacrylic Resistant to most acids
Polyester Resistant to most mineral acids disintegrated by 96% sulhric
Rayon Disintegrates in hot dilute and cold concentrated acids
Acetate Soluble in acetic acid, decomposed by strong acids
Triacetate Similar to acetate
Nylon 66 Decomposed by strong mineral acids, resistant to weak acids
Olefin Very resistant
Glass Resists most acids. Etched by hydrofluoric acid and hot phosphoric acid
Cotton Similar to rayon
Wool Destroyed by hot sulfuric, otherwise unaffected by acids

Effects of Alkalies on Common Fibers - Comparison

Fiber Effects of Alkalies
Acrylic Destroyed by strong alkalies at a boil, resists weak alkalies
Modacrylic Resistant to alkalies
Polyester Resistant to cold alkalies, slowly decomposed at a boil by strong alkalies
Rayon No effect by cold, weak alkalies, swells and loses strength in concentrated alkalies
Acetate Saponified, little effect from cold weak alkalies
Triacetate Not effected up to pH 9.8,205' F; better than acetate
Nylon 66 Little or no effect
Olefin Very resistant
Glass Attacked by hot weak alkalies and concentrated alkalies
Cotton Swells when treated with caustic soda but is not damaged
Wool Attacked by weak alkalies, destroyed by strong alkalies

Effects of Organic Solvents on Common Fibers - Comparison

Fiber Effects of Organic Solvents
Acrylic Unaffected
Modacrylic Soluble in warm acetone, otherwise unaffected
Polyester Soluble in some phenolic compounds, otherwise unaffected
Rayon Unaffected
Acetate Soluble in acetone, dissolved or swollen by many others
Triacetate Soluble in acetone, chloroform and swollen by others
Nylon 66 Generally unaffected, soluble in some phenolic compounds
Olefin Soluble in chlorinated hydrocarbons above 160'
Glass Unaffected
Cotton Resistant
Wool Generally resistant

Effects of Sunlight on Common Fibers - Comparison

Fiber Effects of Sunlight
Acrylic Little or no effect
Modacrylic Highly resistant, some loss of strength and discoloration after constant exposure
Polyester Some loss of strength, no discoloration, very resistant behind glass
Rayon Generally resistant, loses strength after long exposure
Acetate Approximately same as rayon
Triacetate Resistant, loses strength after long exposure
Nylon 66 No discoloration, strength loss after long exposure
Olefin Very resistant, retains 95% strength after 6 months exposure
Glass None
Cotton Strength loss on long exposure
Wool Strength loss, dyeing is affected

Basic Textile Fiber Properties

There are several primary properties necessary for a polymeric material to make an adequate fiber.Certain other fiber properties increase its value and desirability in its intended end-use but are not necessary properties essential to make a fiber. Such secondary properties include moisture absorption characteristics, fiber resiliency, abrasion resistance, density, luster, chemical resistance, thermal characteristics, and flammability.
Some Primary Properties of Textile Fibers are:
  • Fiber length to width ratio,
  • Fiber uniformity,
  • Fiber strength and flexibility,
  • Fiber extensibility and elasticity, and
  • Fiber cohesiveness.

How heat affects Textile Fiber's properties

Examples of Fiber Shapes

Examples of Fiber Shapes
Heat helps the fiber /fabric to gain certain special qualities at certain times and are also harmful at other times.But under special guidance,heat helps fiber acquire the following characteristics
  • Softening, melting, or decomposition temperatures
  • Tendency of the fiber and fabric to shrink when heat-relaxed, or stretch when heated and under tension
  • Ability of the fabric to heat set
  • Ability of the fabric to function properly at elevated temperatures in one time or repeated use
  • Ability of the fabric to function properly at room temperature (or some other lower temperature) after exposure at high temperature for a given period of time

Thermal Properties of Common Fibers

Fiber Melting Point Softening Sticking Point Safe Ironing Temperature
°F °C °F °C °F °C
Natural Fibers
Cotton Nonmelting 425 218
Flax Nonmelting 450 232
Silk Nonmelting 300 149
Wool Nonmelting 300 149
Manmade Fibers
Acetate 446 230 364 184 350 177
Arnel Triacetage 575 302 482 250 464 240
Acrylic 400-490 204-254 300-350 149-176
Aramid Does not melt, carbonizes above 800F
Glass 1400-3033
Modacrylic 410 210 300 149 200-250 93-121
Novoloid Nonmelting
Nylon6 414 212 340 171 300 149
Nylon66 482 250 445 229 350 177
Olefin 275 135 260 127 150 66
Polyester PET 480 249 460 238 325 163
Polyester PCDT 550 311 490 254 350 177
Rayon Nonmelting 375 191
Saran 350 177 300 149 Do not iron
Spandex 446 230 347 175 300 149
Vinyon 285 140 200 93 Do not iron

Density and Moisture Regain of Fibers

Fiber Density (g/cc) Moisture Regain
Density: Ratio of weight of a given volume of fiber to an equal volume of water.
Natural Fibers
Cotton 1.52 7-11
Flax 1.52 12
Silk 1.25 11
Wool 1.32 13-18
Man-made Fibers
Acetate 1.32 6.0
Arnel Triacrylic - 3.2
Acrylic 1.17-1.18 1.3-2.5
Aramid 1.38-1.44 4.5
Flurocarbon 2.20 0
Glass 2.49-2.73 0-0.3
Modacrylic 1.30-1.37 0.4-4.0
Nylon 1.14 4.0-4.5
Nylon Qiana 1.03 2.5
Olefin 0.91 0.01-0.1
Polyester 1.22/1.38 0.4-0.8
Rayon 1.50-1.52 15
Rayon HWM - 11.5-13
Spandex 1.20-1.22 0.75-1.3

textile properties

Fiber Properties for specific requirements

Utility of fibers are broadly catagorized into 2 different uses- one is Apparel or Domestic use and the other is Industrial use.In order to be used in each of these each of these catagories the fiber has to meet some specific requirements.
They are:

Apparel/Domestic Requirements

  • Tenacity: 3 - 5 gramddenier
  • Elongation at break: 10 - 35%
  • Recovery from elongation: 100% at strains up to 5%
  • Modulus of elasticity: 30 - 60 gramddenier
  • Moisture absorbency: 2 - 5%
  • Zero strength temperature (excessive creep and softening point): above 215°C
  • High abrasion resistance (varies with type fabric structure)
  • Dye-able
  • Low flammability
  • Insoluble with low swelling in water, in moderately strong acids and bases and conventional organic solvents from room temperature to 100°c
  • Ease of care

Industrial Requirements

  • Tenacity: 7 - 8 graddenier
  • Elongation at break: 8 - 15%
  • Modulus of elasticity: 80 graddenier or more conditioned, 50 graddenier wet
  • Zero strength temperature: 250° C or above

Properties of Fiber | Properties of Textile Fiber

Properties of Textile Fiber
Normally properties of textile fiber are three types:

    A) Physical Properties
    B) Mechanical Properties
    C) Chemical Properties

A) Physical Properties  
  1. Length
  2. Fineness
  3. Crimp
  4. Maturity
  5. Lusture
  6. Softness
  7. Resiliency
  8. Work of rupture
  9. Density
  10. Appearance
  11. Flexibility
  12. Toughness
  13. Elongation
B) Mechanical Properties  
  1. Strength
  2. Elasticity
  3. Extensibility
  4. Rigidity
C) Chemical Properties  
  1. Solubility in aqueous salt
  2. Solubility in organic salt
Without above that properties, fiber has also 
  1. Thermal Properties
  2. Torsional Properties

Duties and Responsibilities of the Apparel Industrial Engineer

 Duties and Responsibilities of the Apparel Industrial Enginee

Benefits of Apparel Engineering:
  1. Work Simplification.
  2. Increase in productivity.
  3. Increase in profits.
  4. Increase in earnings.
Role of Apparel Industrial Engineer:
As for as the Apparel Engineer concerns having eight areas of responsibility that need to be well organized given under headings.
  1. Safety.
  2. Line balancing.
  3. Quality –Operation Control.
  4. Training-How to train the new employees and sewing operators.
  5. Operator output-maintains high output and also the improving the abilities of those with low output.
  6. Loss control-minimize off-standard loss.
  7. Waste control-in materials, supplies and machinery.
  8. Standard conditions-in the workplace, in sewing method, in the machines.
APPAREL Industrial Engineers are also be showing their skill and attitude towards as an ’Executive as a Leader ‘to maintain the following three areas to be focused mentioned here under.
  1. Maintenance.
  2. Quality work and
  3. Productivity, 
Working together with the co-employees towards the ‘Team Spirit’. Due to increase the higher productivity, he has to take the following tasks to be achieved properly.
  1. Sewing operators transfers between the operations.
  2. Assigning of off-standard tasks.
  3. Overtime planning.
  4. Rights to reject the defective product.
  5. Rights to take Disciplinary actions against the employees/operators.
  6. Recommendations for dismissal.
To execute his duties and responsibilities in such a good manner, every industrial engineer must have the primary and secondary obligations.

Primary obligations are listed below:

  • Provide safety.
  • Proper plan and line balancing the production lines
  • Control quality and free from defects.
  • Develop the employees and sewing machine operators.
  • Material utilization in an economical approach.
  • Follow up on low output employees.
  • Maintain discipline inside the Apparel factory.
Secondary obligations are mentioned below:
  • Bundle handling and movement.
  • Adjustments to machines.
  • Distributes supplies.
  • Handle parts that required reprocessing.
  • Samples.
  • Maintenance.
  • Housekeeping.
  • Miscellaneous.
Duties of apparel industrial engineer:

1. Apparel industrial engineers must daily activities are listed below:
  • Arrive early to factory.
  • Greet arriving employees.
  • Encourage them to start work early.
  • Check attendance.
  • Make adjustments to balance the line as per absence.
  • Attend the production meeting and discuss yesterday’s result and today’s targets and plans.
  • Plan to increase the employees’ efficiency.
  • Plan to improve the outgoing quality.
  • Plan to prepare for routine problems or problems that might arise.
2. Apparel engineers are having their work-check list during the day as mentioned below:
  • Measure the target vs. actual output in every hour.
  • Check quality level.
  • Check inline and end line quality reports.
  • Discuss with quality inspectors perform quality drill.
  • Work with the low output operators.
  • Check the proper method and to be implemented.
  • Motivate and empower all the operators.
  • Follow up on newly joined operators in training.
  • Follow up the operator in re-training.
  • Identify the bottle neck operations and balance accordingly.
  • Provide immediate and continuous follow up to repairs.
  • Monitor and follow up on bundle tracking and outgoing bundles.
  • Authorize any off-stand and ‘clock out’.
  • Order supplies and material for production,
  • And at the end of the each and working must make sure the operators have turned off their machines, cleaned their work area,kept a piece of fabric under the pressure foot, and covered their machine.
  • Check and authorize the production worksheet.
  • Organize production sheets and check the last hour production with the sheet.
  • Review the hourly production report and WIP-report.
  • Analyze the next day’s needs and take notes for implementation.
  • Calculate the next day’s initial inventory according to production information.
3. Apart from the above, he has to do weekly assignment as mentioned below:
  • Review the capacity studies of low output operators.
  • Plan operator cross training to solve balancing problems, and as and when required he has to resolve any operator efficiency problems.
  • Follow up and motivate new employees, work out quality problems with operators; review the proper method with them when necessary.
Industrial Engineers role is very important in the Apparel Manufacturing sector for the betterment of achieving productivity, quality consciousness on the product output, employees, operators to be trained well to achieve targeted efficiency and growth of the industry at most satisfied level.

Books for Reference:
  1. Apparel Manufacturing Analysis, Sewn product Analysis-GLOCK.R.E .and KUNZ, G.I.
  2. Industrial Engineering and Management-Mr O.P.KHANNA.
  3. Industrial Engineering in Apparel Production-Mr .V. RAMESH BABU


Wednesday, 16 August 2017


What is Wrinkle?
A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease in the cloth or garments. Wrinkle is a particular type of pressure in the finished fabric. It is produced during finishing operations by the thickness of the seam used to join pieces for processing. Wrinkle resistance in a fabric is a desirable attribute, but it is not easily measured quantitatively. Wrinkle resistance varies from quite low in many fabrics to very high in resilient fabrics. In order to form a wrinkle, a fabric’s wrinkle resistance must be overcome. The fabric may, however, produce strains and store potential energy that can become evident as wrinkle recovery under suitable conditions.                                                                                                                         
 There are two types of wrinkle process:
  1. Permanent Wrinkle Process
  2. Overall Wrinkle Process
1. Permanent Wrinkle Process:
  • Generally permanent wrinkle is doing on garments after all types of wet process wash in dry position.
  • Permanent wrinkle is done on the garments made from all types of fabrics like, Denim, Twill,
  • Canvas, Poplin, Corduroy, Knit & Polyester etc.
  • For permanent wrinkle we are use resin which is spray on garments particular/specific areaby nozzle.
  • Resin is diluted with water which is recommended by chemical supplier, generally 20% resin& 80% water.
  • After resin spray on respective area, then fold by buyer demand and clip attached upon the folding area.
  • Now hangers the garment in to the hanger trolley, Trolley capacity approx. 80-100 pcs garments.
  • Then trolley with resin treatment garments put inside the Industrial oven.
  • Set temperature 140°c to 160°c, Time 20-40 minutes (if folding layer is less,
  • Less time required, if folding Layer is more, more time is required).
  • Start the machine.
  • When setting time is over, machines are automatically off.
  • After heating time over garments with hanger will stay 10 minutes for cold in oven.
  • Now open the door and trolley with garment out from oven.
  • Open the clip from garment and go to quality section for quality checking & delivery.
2. Overall Wrinkle Process:

  • Generally overall wrinkle is doing on garments after all types of wet process & dry process
    3d wrinkle denim

  • Overall wrinkle is done on the garment made from all types of fabrics like, Denim, Twill,
  • Canvas, Poplin, Corduroy, Knit, Polyester, Viscose & Nylon etc.
  • Now tie the whole garment in tight position by thread.
  • For overall wrinkle, we are used resin in washing machine with water and run tied garments for 5 to 10 minutes at 50°c temperature.
  • Then unload the garments from washing machine to trolley for hydro extractor to remove the excess water.
  • Open the tie or cut the thread.
  • Now hanger the garments into the hanger trolley. Trolley capacity appreciates 80-100 pcs garments.
  • Then trolley with resin treatment garments put inside the Industrial oven.
  • Set temperature 140°c to 160°c, Time 50-70 minutes.
  • Start the machine.
  • When setting time is over, machines are automatically off.
  • After heating time over garments with hanger will stay 10 minutes for cold in oven.
  • Now open the door and trolley with garments out from oven and go to quality section,checking & delivery.


Potassium permanganate spray (P.P Spray): Potassium permanganate spray is done on jeans to take a bright effect on sand blast area. One important thing about potassium permanganate spray is, this is usually a sporting process to increase the effect of sand blast. Potassium permanganate solution is sprayed on blasted area of jeans garment with the help of normal spray gun. This potassium permanganate spray appears pink on garment when fresh and turns to muddy brown on drying. The garment is hanged in open to dry after potassium permanganate spray and when the potassium permanganate turns its colors completely then it is considered to ready for next process. It is always followed by neutralization process. Sodium Meta bisulphate is most commonly used neutralizer. A number of products are available in market for neutralization process like sodium Meta bisulfate selected on the bases of effect required on blasted area.
Potassium permanganate sprays concentrations ranges from .25 gm per liter to 15.00 grams per liter depending to required results and fabric types. Usually indigo died fabrics are treated with low concentrations whereas Black Sulfur Fabric requires high concentrations to treat with.                                                                                                                                                   Process of P.P Spray: 1. Potassium permanganate spray in best is done in specific spray booths, where rubber dummies are installed for holding garments. Garments are mounted on the dummies and air is filled so the garment is full fit exposed. Specific dummies are used for different sizes and styles, like for kids, men’s, trousers, jackets, shirts etc. The booths are fitted with proper air exhaust system. This system leads the spray to treatment room where the chemical mixed air is usually passed through the water showers. Potassium permanganate is dissolved in water and the clean air is blown to open. Shower water is further treated with mild quantities of neutralizer before adding to main drain. But where the potassium permanganate spray is used in low concentrations then there is now need to treat shower water. This mild potassium permanganate mixed water is rat her useful for water reservoirs to keep the water clean and germs free.                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
2. Garments are mounted on air-filled rubber dummies and chemical is sprayed on blasted areas. The variables in spray process are as follows:

  • Distance of spray gun to garment: Less distance will give more defined and sharp effect whereas distant spray will result in more mild and merged effect. Distance ranges from one foot to two and a half feet. 

  • Air to water ratio of gun: This is to be set very carefully. Low air pressure possibly will through KMnO4 drops on garment resulting in bright white spots whereas high pressure will produce very low bright effect spray effect to areas where it is not required. 
Potassium Permanganate Solution Concentration: This will control the extent of brightnes

properties for textile fiber

Chemical composition of some common fibers Type of fiber Cellulose ...